IEA Publications on 'Energy Security'
Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Finland -- 2013 Review, 176 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-19077-1, paper €75, PDF €60 (2013)
Finland’s economy is highly industrialised. Yet with over one-third of its territory located above the Arctic Circle, the country is largely rural and sparsely populated, except for its southern tip. With its energy-intensive industries and its cold climate, Finland’s energy consumption per capita is the highest in the IEA.
Finland is highly dependent on imported fossil fuels, and energy policy is at the heart of the government’s concerns. The government’s energy strategy aims to strengthen Finland’s energy security, to move progressively towards a decarbonised economy, and to deepen its integration in the wider European market.
Finland has a very ambitious renewable energy programme, with a view to meeting 38% of its final energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. Finland is the most forested country in Europe; biomass will thus play a central role in meeting the target.
Finland is one of few IEA countries with plans to expand its nuclear capacity, and the Parliament has approved the construction of two more nuclear power plants. If all planned projects are completed, the share of electricity produced by nuclear could double by 2025, reaching around 60%. This would contribute to diversifying Finland’s energy security and meeting its low-carbon objectives.
Also, Finland participates in the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP), which aims to further regional integration through EU-supported infrastructure projects.
This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Finland, and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Sweden -- 2013 Review, 182 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-19073-3, paper €75, PDF €60 (2013)
|Download here the free chapter on the Swedish energy policy framework
Sweden has made progress in recent years towards a more secure, sustainable energy future. The Scandinavian nation already has an almost carbon-free electricity supply and has phased out oil use in residential and power sectors. It is increasingly integrated within the Nordic and Baltic electricity markets, and its joint renewable electricity certificate market with Norway offers a unique model for other countries.
Now Sweden must take concrete steps to realise its vision of a fossil-fuel-independent vehicle fleet by 2030 and no net greenhouse-gas emissions by 2050. Although Sweden has decided to allow the replacement of its existing nuclear reactors, further emission reductions will come at a higher cost and require technology change. This means Sweden will need to carefully evaluate the most cost-effective pathways for its transition to a low-carbon economy.
Sweden has a high energy-intensity level, which requires greater energy efficiency in industry, buildings, heat and transport. A decarbonisation vision should be mapped out for each industry sector. Starting with transport, Sweden must specify how it will wean its vehicle fleet from fossil fuels by 2030.
Sweden’s industry lead in smart grids is an asset. Sweden should scale up investment in clean energy technologies. As all Nordic countries decarbonise, cost-effective regional solutions can control consumers’ costs. The large-scale deployment of renewable and energy technologies in a common Northern European energy market can drive decarbonisation without comprising competitiveness, security of supply and affordability.
This review analyses the energy-policy challenges currently facing Sweden, and provides studies and recommendations for each sector.
Medium-Term Coal Market Report 2012 -- Market Trends and Projections to 2017, 148 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-17795-6, paper €100, PDF €80 (2012)
The Medium-Term Coal Market Report 2012 provides IEA forecasts on coal markets for the coming five years as well as an in-depth analysis of recent developments in global coal demand, supply and trade. The annual report shows that while coal continues to be a growing source of primary energy worldwide, its future is increasingly linked to non-OECD countries, particularly China and India, and to the rise of natural gas.
The international coal market is experiencing dynamic changes. In 2011, China alone accounted for more than three-quarters of incremental coal production, while domestic consumption was more than three times that of global trade. Low gas prices associated with the shale gas revolution caused a marked decrease in coal use in the United States, the world’s second-largest consumer. This led US thermal coal producers to seek other markets, which resulted in an oversupply of coal in Europe and a significant gas-to-coal switch. Meanwhile, China overtook Japan as the largest importer of coal, and Indonesia overtook Australia as the world’s largest exporter on a tonnage basis.
The report examines the pronounced role the Chinese and Indian economies will exert on the international coal trade through 2017. In the report’s Base Case Scenario, China accounts for over half of global consumption from 2014, and India surpasses the United States as the world’s second-largest consumer of coal in 2017. The report also offers a Chinese Slowdown Case, a hypothetical scenario which shows that even if Chinese GDP growth slowed to 4.6% average over the period, the country’s coal consumption would continue to grow.
Energy Policies of IEA Countries - The Republic of Korea -- 2012 Review, 140 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-17150-3, paper €75, PDF €60 (2012)
Korea, the world’s thirteenth-largest economy and the seventh-largest exporter, is an energy-intensive nation. In 2008, the country adopted a long-term “green growth” strategy to foster economic development by means of low-carbon technologies and clean energy; since then, the government has implemented many policies to support these goals.
In 2012, Korea announced an emissions-trading scheme -- the first of its kind in Asia -- which will be implemented in 2015. This represents a major step towards achieving its target of a 30% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. Strong energy efficiency policies have been developed to complement the emissions-reduction target. Korea has made efforts to enhance energy security by taking measures to diversify energy sources, reduce the use of fossil fuels and foster the development of renewable energy alongside the expansion of its nuclear energy programme. Government expenditure on energy-related RD&D is among the highest in the OECD.
Progress in some sectors has been slower, and the lack of a clear, long-term vision for its electricity and natural gas markets is one of the greatest energy-policy challenges facing the Korean government. Energy markets are dominated by incumbents and have been slow to open up to competition.
This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing Korea and provides sector-based assessments and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 -- Pathways to a Clean Energy System, 690 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-17488-7, paper €150, PDF €120 (2012)
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Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP)
is the International Energy Agency’s most ambitious publication on new developments in energy technology. It demonstrates how technologies – from electric vehicles to smart grids – can make a decisive difference in achieving the objective of limiting the global temperature rise to 2°C and enhancing energy security.
presents scenarios and strategies to 2050, with the aim of guiding decision makers on energy trends and what needs to be done to build a clean, secure and competitive energy future.
Clients who purchase ETP 2012 also get access to all figures (and the data behind them) in electronic format, downloadable from the IEA website.
• Current progress on clean energy
deployment, and what can be done to accelerate it
• How energy security and low carbon energy
• How energy systems
will become more complex in the future, why systems integration is beneficial and how it can be achieved
• How demand for heating and cooling will evolve dramatically
and which solutions will satisfy it
• Why flexible electricity systems are increasingly important,
and how a system with smarter grids, energy storage and flexible generation can work
• Why hydrogen could play a big role in the energy system of the future
• Why fossil fuels will not disappear but will see their roles change
, and what it means for the energy system as a whole
• What is needed to realise the potential of carbon capture and storage
• Whether available technologies can allow the world to have zero energy related emissions by 2075
– which seems a necessary condition for the world to meet the 2°C target
Global scenarios to 2050 are the backbone of ETP, and the 2012 edition features detailed scenarios for nine world regions.
Energy Policies of IEA Countries - The Slovak Republic -- 2012 Review, 160 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-09824-4, paper €75, PDF €60 (2012)
The Slovak Republic imports virtually all of its natural gas and crude oil from a single supplier, the Russian Federation. Energy security is therefore an overarching concern and priority in the Slovak Republic’s energy policy agenda. The government is taking steps to diversify supplies and build on lessons learned from the gas supply disruption in 2009.
Enhancing regional co-operation, particularly in the development of gas and electricity interconnections, is an essential step towards meeting the dual policy objectives of enhancing energy security and market competition. The Slovak Republic has moved forward with coupling its electricity market with the Czech Republic's, and supports the construction of a North-South pipeline connection that would link planned LNG terminals in Croatia and Poland, including an interconnector to Hungary.
Despite a sharp decline in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions since 1990, the Slovak Republic remains a GHG-intensive economy by OECD standards, with energy-related CO2 emissions accounting for over 70% of total GHG emissions. The country must continue to implement policies that ease the transition to a low-carbon economy. Nuclear power and renewable energy can play crucial roles in the Slovak Republic’s efforts to decarbonise its electricity production. Significant efforts can also be made to improve energy efficiency, especially in the transport and building sectors. District heating is a notable area with huge potential for reducing national GHG emissions.
This review analyses the energy-policy challenges currently facing the Slovak Republic, and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.