Oil products comprise refinery gas, ethane, LPG, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, jet fuels, kerosene, gas/diesel oil, fuel oil, naphtha, white spirit, lubricants, bitumen, paraffin waxes, petroleum coke and other oil products. Oil products are any oil-based products which can be obtained by distillation and are normally used outside the refining industry. The exceptions to this are those finished products which are classified as refinery feedstocks.
Gas/diesel oil (distilled fuel oil)
Liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)
Other oil products
Refinery gas (not liquefied)
Aviation gasoline is motor spirit prepared especially for aviation piston engines, with an octane number suited to the engine, a freezing point of -60°C, and a distillation range usually within the limits of 30°C and 180°C.
Bitumen is a solid, semi-solid or viscous hydrocarbon with a colloidal structure which is brown to black in colour. It is obtained by vacuum distillation of oil residues from atmospheric distillation of crude oil. Bitumen is often referred to as asphalt and is primarily used for surfacing of roads and for roofing material. This category includes fluidised and cut back bitumen.
Ethane is a naturally gaseous straight-chain hydro-carbon (C2H6). It is a colourless paraffinic gas which is extracted from natural gas and refinery gas streams.
Fuel oil defines oils that make up the distillation residue. It comprises all residual fuel oils, including those obtained by blending. Its kinematic viscosity is above 10 cSt at 80°C. The flash point is always above 50°C and the density is always higher than 0.90 kg/l.
Gas diesel oil/(distillate fuel oil)
Gas/diesel oil includes heavy gas oils. Gas oils are obtained from the lowest fraction from atmospheric distillation of crude oil, while heavy gas oils are obtained by vacuum redistillation of the residual from atmospheric distillation. Gas/diesel oil distils between 180°C and 380°C. Several grades are available depending on uses: diesel oil for diesel compression ignition (cars, trucks, marine, etc.), light heating oil for industrial and commercial uses, and other gas oil including heavy gas oils which distil between 380°C and 540°C and which are used as petrochemical feedstocks.
Kerosene (other than kerosene used for aircraft transport which is included with aviation fuels) comprises refined petroleum distillate intermediate in volatility between gasoline and gas/diesel oil. It is a medium oil distilling between 150°C and 300°C.
This category comprises both gasoline and kerosene type jet fuels meeting specifications for use in aviation turbine power units.
Gasoline type jet fuel includes all light hydrocarbon oils for use in aviation turbine power units which distil between 100°C and 250°C. This fuel is obtained by blending kerosenes and gasoline or naphthas in such a way that the aromatic content does not exceed 25 per cent in volume, and the vapour pressure is between 13.7 kPa and 20.6 kPa. Additives can be included to improve fuel stability and combustibility.
Kerosene type jet fuel is medium distillate used for aviation turbine power units. It has the same distillation characteristics and flash point as kerosene (between 150°C and 300°C but not generally above 250°C). In addition, it has particular specifications (such as freezing point) which are established by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). It includes kerosene blending components.
Liquefied petroleum gases are the light hydrocarbon fraction of the paraffin series, derived from refinery processes, crude oil stabilisation plants and natural gas processing plants comprising propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10) or a combination of the two. They could also include propylene, butylene, isobutene and isobutylene. LPG are normally liquefied under pressure for transportation and storage.
Lubricants are hydrocarbons produced from distillate or residue; they are mainly used to reduce friction between bearing surfaces. This category includes all finished grades of lubricating oil, from spindle oil to cylinder oil, and those used in greases, including motor oils and all grades of lubricating oil base stocks.
Motor gasoline is light hydrocarbon oil for use in internal combustion engines such as motor vehicles, excluding aircraft. Motor gasoline is distilled between 35°C and 215°C and is used as a fuel for land based spark ignition engines. Motor gasoline may include additives, oxygenates and octane enhancers, including lead compounds such as TEL (Tetraethyl lead) and TML (tetramethyl lead).
Naphtha is a feedstock destined either for the petrochemical industry (e.g. ethylene manufacture or aromatics production) or for gasoline production by reforming or isomerisation within the refinery. Naphtha comprises material that distils between 30°C and 210°C.
Other oil products
Other oil products not classified elsewhere (e.g. tar, sulphur and grease) are included here. This category also includes aromatics (e.g. BTX or benzene, toluene and xylene) and olefins (e.g. propylene) produced within refineries.
Paraffin Waxes are saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons. These waxes are residues extracted when dewaxing lubricant oils and they have a crystalline structure which is more or less fine according to the grade. Their main characteristics are that they are colourless, odourless and translucent, with a melting point above 45°C.
Petroleum coke is defined as a black solid residue, obtained mainly by cracking and carbonising of petroleum derived feedstocks, vacuum bottoms, tar and pitches in processes such as delayed coking or fluid coking. It consists mainly of carbon (90 to 95 per cent) and has a low ash content. It is used as a feedstock in coke ovens for the steel industry, for heating purposes, for electrode manufacture and for production of chemicals. The two most important qualities are "green coke" and "calcinated coke". This category also includes "catalyst coke" deposited on the catalyst during refining processes: this coke is not recoverable and is usually burned as refinery fuel.
Refinery gas is defined as non-condensable gas obtained during distillation of crude oil or treatment of oil products (e.g. cracking) in refineries. It consists mainly of hydrogen, methane, ethane and olefins. It also includes gases which are returned from the petrochemical industry. Refinery gas production refers to gross production.
White spirit and SBP are refined distillate intermediates with a distillation in the naphtha/kerosene range. White spirit has a flash point above 30°C and a distillation range of 135°C to 200°C. Industrial spirit (SBP) comprises light oils distilling between 30°C and 200°C, with a temperature difference between 5 per cent volume and 90 per cent volume distillation points, including losses, of not more than 60°C. In other words, SBP is a light oil of narrower cut than motor spirit. There are seven or eight grades of industrial spirit, depending on the position of the cut in the distillation range defined above.